EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The emergence of Muslim political parties in the Netherlands is a new facet of Islamization. One of these parties, Denk, has three seats in parliament and is also represented at the local level, as are other Muslim parties. They usually oppose integration and do not accept Dutch culture as the country’s dominant culture. Anti-Semitism is a regular attribute, often disguised as hate speech against Israel.
New facets of Islamization keep emerging in Western Europe. An important one is the emergence of Muslim political parties, a development that has occurred primarily in the Netherlands so far. These parties exist on both the local and national levels. While identity politics in the Netherlands has greatly decreased, the full impact of this new development is not yet understood.
The main Muslim party in the Netherlands is called Denk (Think). It came into being after two Turkish-born parliamentarians, Tunahan Kuzu and Selçuk Öztürk, were expelled from the Labour (PvdA) faction at the end of 2014. They had opposed the integration policy for immigrants of then PvdA Deputy Prime Minister Lodewijk Asscher. Shortly before his expulsion from the party, Öztürk said to Ahmed Marcouch, another Labour Muslim parliamentarian, “May Allah punish you.”